Por que os soviéticos não foram à Lua?

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01

A União Soviética largou na frente na Corrida Espacial, mas foi incapaz de colocar uma pessoa na superfície da Lua.

Após a conquista americana ao realizar o primeiro pouso tripulado na superfície do satélite natural da Terra, a URSS teria desistido de lá chegar. Será?

É um fato básico da história. No dia 20 de julho de 1969, os astronautas americanos da NASA Neil Armstrong e Buzz Aldrin se tornaram os primeiros seres humanos a pisarem em outro corpo celeste, fazendo história e derrotando os soviéticos na corrida espacial.

02

Os soviéticos, é claro, nunca pousaram um veículo tripulado na Lua, ou melhor, nem sequer realizaram um voo tripulado ao redor da Lua. Mas por que isso? Afinal, na maior parte do tempo da corrida espacial os soviéticos estavam na liderança. Eles foram os primeiros a colocar um satélite em órbita, os primeiros a enviar um Homem ao espaço e os primeiros a enviar uma nave espacial em torno da Lua, tirando fotos do lado oculto. Mesmo que, em última análise, não ganhassem a corrida, eles estavam perto da linha de chegada. Então o que aconteceu?

Essencialmente a resposta é uma combinação de intriga política, falta de infra-estrutura e tecnologia instável.

A estrutura da política soviética era de lutas internas e constantes traições. Os soviéticos eram muitas vezes o seu próprio pior inimigo. Mesmo quando estavam correndo contra os EUA, eles também estavam competindo uns contra os outros. Diferentes grupos de pesquisas desenvolveram simultaneamente projetos de foguetes, competindo entre eles ao invés de trabalharem em conjunto. Num dado momento, havia trinta modelos diferentes, todos competindo pela aprovação do Kremlin.

03

Em última análise, a gigantesca tarefa coube a Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, um especialista em foguetes que supervisionou tanto o lançamento do Sputnik, bem como o voo espacial de Yuri Gagarin. Seu trabalho era construir um foguete poderoso o suficiente para levar astronautas à Lua.

No entanto, ele se deparou com um problema. Enquanto os EUA tinham a infraestrutura para construir os motores F1 usados no foguete Saturno V, o contrário ocorria com os soviéticos. Eles foram forçados a construir motores menores para o seu foguete N1, que acabou exigindo o uso de trinta motores dispostos em um círculo.

04

Estes motores menores tiveram que usar um sistema de ciclo fechado, o que produzia mais impulso, mas também um fator maior de risco por causa do super aquecimento. Já os americanos foram capazes de usar um sistema mais confiável, porém menos potente, chamado de ciclo aberto no Saturno V.

Quando os soviéticos finalmente construíram seu foguete N1, quatro voos de testes foram programados. Todos os voos falharam com os foguetes sendo destruídos. Após esses lançamentos fracassados, o programa inteiro foi desmantelado devido a preocupações com os custos. Os soviéticos nunca lançaram o N1 fora da atmosfera.

05

Anos mais tarde, os EUA adquiriram vários destes motores de ciclo fechado, e descobriu-se que os soviéticos haviam avançado a tecnologia ainda mais do que se pensava ser possível. Eles conseguiram resolver o problema de instabilidade, produzindo um motor menor ainda e mais potente, além de eficaz no consumo de combustível.

A tecnologia que eles desenvolveram mais tarde foi incorporada no motor RD-180 que propulsiona o foguete Atlas V dos EUA.

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Tags: corrida espacial, exploração espacial, OH, OVNI Hoje, Por que não foram à Lua?, soviéticos na Lua

Category: Documentários, OH

Extraído de OvniHoje

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