Neutrinos podem ter viajado mais rápido que a luz

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Fonte: Site Inovação Tecnológica

altQuando, há poucos mais de um ano, cientistas do experimento Opera detectaram neutrinos transmutando-se de um tipo em outro, eles logo falaram da descoberta de uma “nova física”. E eles aparentemente já tinham nas mãos outros resultados ainda mais surpreendentes. Depois de dois anos de medições, e inúmeras revisões e checagens, eles finalmente resolveram compartilhar sua possível descoberta com outros pesquisadores.
Segundo Antonio Ereditato, da Universidade de Berna, na Suíça, a equipe aparentemente detectou neutrinos viajando mais rápido do que a velocidade da luz.   Quebra da relatividade?
Se neutrinos podem viajar mais rápido do que a velocidade da luz, então o preceito fundamental de que as leis da física são as mesmas para todos os observadores cai por terra.  A ideia de que nada pode viajar mais rapidamente do que a luz é um pilar da teoria da relatividade especial, formulada por Einstein. E esta teoria está na base de toda a física moderna.
Isto sim, pode apontar para uma “nova física” – desde que os outros pesquisadores não encontrem erros no experimento e nas análises. “Nós tentamos por todos os meios descobrir um erro – erros triviais, erros mais complicados, efeitos impensáveis – mas não conseguimos encontrar nenhum,” disse Ereditato.
Depois de tantos cuidados, ele e sua equipe afirmam ter alcançado um nível seis sigma, que indicaria uma descoberta científica realmente válida. Tudo vai depender do escrutínio que será feito nos dados por equipes de físicos do mundo todo.
“Dadas as potenciais consequências de longo alcance desse resultado, medições independentes serão necessárias antes que o efeito seja refutado ou firmemente estabelecido,” disse o CERN em nota.
Nano-incerteza
O experimento OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) está localizado a 1.400 metros de profundidade, no Laboratório Gran Sasso, na Itália. Um detector ultra-sensível recebe um feixe de neutrinos disparado do laboratório CERN, na Suíça – onde está o LHC – que está localizado a mais de 730 quilômetros de distância.
O que os pesquisadores concluíram é que os neutrinos estão chegando 60 nanossegundos antes do que deveriam. E isso só pode ser possível se eles estiverem viajando a uma velocidade maior do que 299.792.458 metros por segundo, que é a velocidade exata da luz.
Para checar seus resultados, os cientistas usaram relógios atômicos e avançados sistemas de GPS, conseguindo com isso reduzir a incerteza da distância percorrida pelos neutrinos para 20 centímetros – em relação aos 730 km do feixe. O tempo de chegada dos neutrinos foi medido com uma incerteza de 10 nanossegundos.
Atalhos em outras dimensões
O físico italiano Antonino Zichichi, falando à revista Nature, levantou a hipótese de que – se os resultados se confirmarem e a física como a conhecemos estiver mesmo desmoronando – então os neutrinos superluminais podem estar pegando atalhos por dimensões extras do espaço, algo que é previsto pela Teoria das Cordas.

Mas tanto Ereditato quanto o CERN são bem mais comedidos. “As medições do OPERA estão em desacordo com leis da natureza bem estabelecidas, embora a ciência muitas vezes progrida derrubando os paradigmas estabelecidos,” diz a nota do CERN. De fato, não têm faltado medições e estudos em busca de “desvios” da teoria da relatividade de Einstein – até hoje sem sucesso.

“As fortes restrições decorrentes dessas observações tornam improvável uma interpretação da medição do OPERA em termos da modificação da teoria de Einstein, o que nos dá motivos ainda mais fortes para buscar novas medições independentes,” conclui a equipe do laboratório.(Fonte: http://www.inovacaotecnologica.com.br/noticias/noticia.php?artigo=neutrinos-viajar-mais-rapido-luz&id=01013011092)

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