A Terra entrou em uma nova era geológica, segundo cientistas

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Planeta Terra: cientistas levantam em seu estudo até que ponto as ações humanas registradas são mensuráveis nas camadas geológicas

As provas de que a Terra entrou em uma nova era geológica devido ao impacto da atividade humana já são “arrasadoras”, segundo um novo estudo elaborado por uma equipe internacional de cientistas liderada pela Universidade de Leicester (Inglaterra).

A entrada nesta nova era geológica, batizada de Antropoceno, pode ter acontecido em meados do século passado e foi marcada pelo consumo em massa de materiais como alumínio, concreto, plástico e pelas consequências dos testes nucleares em todo o planeta, segundo a pesquisa publicada na revista “Science”.

A isso é preciso somar o aumento das emissões de gases que provocaram o efeito estufa, assim como uma invasão sem precedentes de espécies em ecossistemas diferentes do seu.

Os cientistas levantam em seu estudo até que ponto as ações humanas registradas são mensuráveis nas camadas geológicas e até que ponto esta nova era geológica se diferencia da anterior, o Holoceno, que começou há 11.700 anos, quando aconteceu o retrocesso das geleiras após a última glaciação.

No Holoceno as sociedades humanas aumentaram a produção de alimentos com o desenvolvimento da agricultura, construíram assentamentos urbanos e aproveitaram os recursos hídricos, minerais e energéticos do planeta.

Por outro lado, o Antropoceno é uma época de rápidas mudanças ambientais provocadas pelo impacto de um aumento da população e pelo consumo, sobretudo após a chamada “grande aceleração” de meados do Século XX, segundo os pesquisadores.

“Os humanos estão há algum tempo afetando o meio ambiente, mas recentemente aconteceu uma rápida propagação mundial de novos materiais como alumínio, concreto e plásticos, que estão deixando sua marca nos sedimentos”, disse no estudo o professor Colin Waters, do Instituto Geológico Britânico.

Jan Zalasiewicz, cientista da Universidade de Leicester que é um dos líderes do grupo de trabalho, afirmou que a queima de combustíveis fósseis disseminou pelo ar partículas de cinzas por todo o mundo, ao que é preciso somar os radionuclídeo dispersados pelos testes de armas nucleares.

“Tudo isto demonstra que há uma realidade subjacente no conceito Antropoceno”, declarou Zalasiewicz, também diretor do chamado Grupo de Trabalho Antropoceno, integrado por 24 cientistas.

Segundo o estudo, os humanos mudaram em tal medida o sistema da Terra que deixaram uma série de sinais nos sedimentos e no gelo dos polos, suficientemente diferentes para justificar o reconhecimento da passagem para uma nova época geológica.

O Grupo de Trabalho Antropoceno quer este ano reunir mais provas desta mudança para ver se pode formalizar esta nova época e estabelecer recomendações.

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